P1 仿生学Passage One
题型：Matching5+T/F/G 4+选择 4
2. recycled gas 3
4. cosmetics 2
5. Removing salt 去盐碱化 判断
6. 数值 30% 仿生学提高效率 T
7. 发明的车卖的最好的 NG
8. 一个项目 每个大洲都有 NG
9. 有个公司发明 painting F
Can we Hold Back the Flood?
欧洲从中世纪以来，史上最严重洪水传统方法A： 挖渠， 但是洪水依然汹涌
A LAST winter's floods on the rivers of central Europe were among the worst since the Middle Ages, and as winter storms return, the spectre of floods is returning too. Just weeks ago, the river Rhône in south-east France burst its banks, driving 15,000 people from their homes, and worse could be on the way. Traditionally, river engineers have gone for Plan A: get rid of the water fast, draining it off the land and down to the sea in tall-sided rivers re-engineered as high-performance drains. But however big they dig city drains, however wide and straight they make the rivers, and however high they build the banks, the floods keep coming back to taunt them, from the Mississippi to the Danube. And when the floods come, they seem to be worse than ever.No wonder engineers are turning to Plan B: sap the water's destructive strength by dispersing it into fields, forgotten lakes, flood plains and aquifers.
B Back in the days when rivers took a more tortuous path to the sea, flood waters lost impetus and volume while meandering across flood plains and idling through wetlands and inland deltas. But today the water tends to have an unimpeded journey to the sea. And this means that when it rains in the uplands, the water comes down all at once. Worse, whenever we close off more flood plain, the river's flow farther downstream becomes more violent and uncontrollable. Dykes are only as good as their weakest link - and the water will unerringly find it. By trying to turn the complex hydrology of rivers into the simple mechanics of a water pipe, engineers have often created danger where they promised safety, and intensified the floods they meant to end.Take the Rhine, Europe most engineered river. For two centuries,German engineers have erased its backwaters and cut it off from its flood plain.
莱茵河长度减少，水流加快，危害很大，密西西比河也一样， flood plain 不停地重复
C Today, the river has lost 7 per cent of its original length and runs up to a third faster. When it rains hard in the Alps, the peak flows from several tributaries coincide in the main river, where once they arrived separately. And with four-fifths of the lower Rhine's flood plain barricaded off, the waters rise ever higher. The result is more frequent flooding that does ever-greater damage to the homes, offices and roads that sit on the flood plain. Much the same has happened in the US on the mighty Mississippi, which drains the world's second largest river catchment into the Gulf of Mexico.
D The European Union is trying to improve rain forecasts and more accurately model how intense rains swell rivers. That may help cities prepare, but it won't stop the floods. To do that, say hydrologists, you need a new approach to engineering not just rivers, but the whole landscape. The UK's Environment Agency - which has been granted an extra £150 million a year to spend in the wake of floods in 2000 that cost the country £1 billion - puts it like this: "The focus is now on working with the forces of nature. Towering concrete walls are out, and new wetlands are in."To help keep London's feet dry, the agency is breaking the Thames's banks upstream and reflooding 10 square kilometres of ancient flood plain at Otmoor outside Oxford. Nearer to London it has spent £100 million creating new wetlands and a relief channel across 16 kilometres of flood plain to protect the town of Maidenhead, as well as the ancient playing fields of Eton College. And near the south coast the agency is digging out channels to reconnect old meanders on the river Cuckmere in East Sussex that were cut off by flood banks 150 years ago.
The same is taking place on a much grander scale in Austria, in one of Europe's largest river restorations to date. Engineers are regenerating flood plains along 60 kilometres of the river Drava as it exits the Alps. They are also widening the river bed and channelling it back into abandoned meanders, oxbow lakes and backwaters overhung with willows. The engineers calculate that the restored flood plaincan now store up to 10 million cubic metres of flood waters and slow storm surges coming out of the Alps by more than an hour, protecting towns as far downstream as Slovenia and Croatia.
荷兰的一个专家说，洪水需要更大的空间，缓解。"soft engineers" 需要城市成为渗水性，柏林是个优秀的例子。
F "Rivers have to be allowed to take more space. They have to be turned from flood-chutes into flood-foilers," says Nienhuis. And the Dutch, for whom preventing floods is a matter of survival, have gone furthest. A nation built largely on drained marshes and seabed had the fright of its life in 1993 when the Rhine almost overwhelmed it. The same happened again in 1995, when a quarter of a million people were evacuated from the Netherlands. But a new breed of "soft engineers" wants our cities to become porous, and Berlin is their shining example. Since reunification, the city's massive redevelopment has been governed by tough new rules to prevent its drains becoming overloaded after heavy rains. Harald Kraft, an architect working in the city, says: "We now see rainwater as a resource to be kept rather than got rid of at great cost."A good illustration is the giant Potsdamer Platz, a huge new commercial redevelopment by Daimler Chrysler in the heart of the city.
G Los Angeles has spent billions of dollars digging huge drains and concreting river beds to carry away the water from occasional intense storms. The latest plan is to spend a cool $280 million raising the concrete walls on the Los Angeles river by another 2 metres. Yet many communities still flood regularly.Meanwhile this desert city is shipping in water from hundreds of kilometres away in northern California and from the Colorado river in Arizona to fill its taps and swimming pools, and irrigate its green spaces. It all sounds like bad planning. "In LA we receive half the water we need in rainfall, and we throw it away. Then we spend hundreds of millions to import water," says Andy Lipkis, an LA environmentalist wh
H Lipkis, along with citizens groups like Friends of the Los Angeles River and Unpaved LA, want to beat the urban flood hazard and fill the taps by holding onto the city's flood water. And it's not just a pipe dream. The authorities this year launched a $100 million scheme to road-test the porous city in one flood-hit community in Sun Valley. The plan is to catch the rain that falls on thousands of driveways, parking lots and rooftops in the valley. Trees will soak up water from parking lots. Homes and public buildings will capture roof water to irrigate gardens and parks. And road drains will empty into old gravel pits and other leaky places that should recharge the city's underground water reserves. Result: less flooding and more water for the city.Plan B says every city should be porous, every river should have room to flood naturally and every coastline should be left to build its own defences. It sounds expensive and utopian, until you realise how much we spend trying to drain cities and protect our watery margins - and how bad we are at it.
题型：Matching 6+判断 4+填空 3
新的解决方法在 3 个国家使用
15. 2 reasons for isolated from a flooding plain iii
16. the method has been used in three countries iv
18. 作者对比率新旧方法的花费 vii 多选
19. canal directed to the sea
20. Lots of areas and lands
21. Europe attacked by flood recently
22. 跟另一条河 Mississippi, two rivers are similar
23. 有个城市使用了项目名字 soft engineer
24. 小规模用大规模规划 Los Angeles
题目：what do baby think
32. 家长 高估孩子反应 NG
33. 一百个实验对象 证明以前理论对 T
34. 小火车实验对于科学家太简单 不可信 F
35. 父母拒绝实验 NG
36. 这两人观点相似 T Matching
37. 科学家说小孩学 speech
1、北外 Room4 白人胖胖老头儿 没有耐心…… 趴弯 study major fruit why how often how difficult 趴图 how keep fit why anything else to keep healthy 趴碎Chinese young people keep fit why eat junk food Chinese children do exercise
2、北外rm10 英国音白人 比较严肃 紧张得疯了 part1 问职业 喜欢听的音乐 最近一次看的 live concert part2 get up early那个(彻底悲剧 卡壳了 直接让我别说了)part3 对于大多数人来说多早起床算早 通宵工作好吗
4、北京教考中心rm8 白人爷爷会笑但是说话不是特别清楚 p1工作还是上学什么专业毕业后想做什么为什么呢 p2 友好对待不喜欢的人 p3相关p2的一大堆问题有什么情况会友好对待不喜欢的人，礼貌和友好之间的区别，有没有友好但不礼貌的情况有的人可以让所有人都觉得他charming 怎么做到的。
5、北外room19，超级和蔼的白人老爷爷，会给手势引导你 爬完：name, subject, work, where you read, tv 爬图：moive you want to see again 爬三：cinema or home
6、北外 RM13 5月12日。趴1 介绍自己 Student or get job，喜欢museum 吗，喜欢一个人还是和其他人一起，希望在museum工作吗。喜欢信还是电邮，为什么?,趴2 一件重要的玩具对你的童年 ，趴3 为什么重要，玩具是否有助于身心健康 ,有助于哪方面的帮助
7、北外rm8 p1：专业 p2：a picture or photograph in ur home p3: photograph是一门艺术，能养家糊口吗?小孩子该学paint吗?你不觉得这就是浪费时间吗? 就是这样 预测里有这个吗?
26. B. length of the presentation
27. A. state suryers
28. C. misinterpret the supporting data
29. B. soil with water on the mud surface
30. C. details of the site in the note
Jill 和 P(女生)与教授讨论研究课程,要去实地考察 Bond River reservoir
A definitely present
B possibly present
C not present
22. village ——C
24. animal track——A
25. mud ——A
B. 做完勘察后做 the length of presentation
Make a detailed note on site
29. Jill 对于这个项目最担心/最难的是? D.Interpretation of the data
C. water on the surface of mud
31. petrol station
33. head office
34. fresh food
31. 超市在什么地方开更多的分店增加市场占有率(market share)? 答案:Petrol station
closed down the stores in Southern Scotland
33. 这个店和其他店不同,a new brand focuses on fresh food
34. 200 多员工或被分配(transferred)到其他地方,或被 retrained 35. retail store should be flexible in profits
36. 公司对于自己选择的什么东西要保持开放的态度(open- minded)? 答案:strategies
37. 关闭伦敦的 head office
38. seek help from the partners
39. had a manager to handle the discussion
40. save cost by changing/reducing the orgnisations in department
The diagram shows the stages of processing cocoa beans.
澳洲：Health experts claim that walking is the best exercise. However people are walking less on a daily basis. What has made it happen and how to deal with this?
大陆：To improve the quality of education, people think that we should encourage our students to evaluate and criticize their teachers. Others believe that it will result in a loss of respect and discipline in the classroom. Discuss on both sides and give your own opinion.