阅读事实信息题解题技巧


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  托福阅览有十大题型,相对而言,现实信息题(或称细节题)是较为简略的一类,这类题型不需求学生理清作者写作的思路或许思考内容背面的意义,只需求断定文章中对应的说法,80%左右的现实信息题都只需求阅览文章中一两个要害的语句就满足解题了。

  托福阅览现实信息题在每篇阅览文章中呈现至少1题,多者能有3-4题,占分比高。而解题时需求学生从题干中断定要害词,由要害词找到原句,再经过原句与选项选出赞同改写的答案即可。在回到原文与断定选项两个过程,一些技巧可以协助学生节约答题时刻。

  定位过程中,假如题干中呈现人名、地名、大写文字、数字、时代或许专有名词等,这些都将协助学生高效定位到原文。一般情况下题干中会给出对应阶段,假如没有给定阶段,解题时一般依照行文次序来缩小定位规模。

  比方标题“Paragraph 3 supports the idea that Gause’s experiments were important because they ____”题干问的是文章支撑Gause的试验很重要是由于什么?由人名Gause定位到红字部分,发现本句和“important ”没有联系,可是从下一句可以看出试验证明了”the law of competitive exclusion”,解出标题。

  Paragraph 3: To what extent competition determines the composition of a community and the density of particular species has been the source of considerable controversy. The problem is that competition ordinarily cannot be observed directly but must be inferred from the spread or increase of one species and the concurrent reduction or disappearance of another species. The Russian biologist G. F. Gause performed numerous two-species experiments in the laboratory, in which one of the species became extinct when only a single kind of resource was available. On the basis of these experiments and of field observations, the so-called law of competitive exclusion was formulated,according to which no two species can occupy the same niche. Numerous seeming exceptions to this law have since been found, but they can usually be explained as cases in which the two species, even though competing for a major joint resource, did not really occupy exactly the same niche. (TPO 29 Competition)

  选项内容并不是文章中的原话,所以在断定选项时,要看出选项句对原句的改写。

  改写后的语句在意思和言语逻辑结构上完全符合定位句。可是许多正确选项可能是抽象、概括的,没有显着的改写痕迹。所以在断定选项时要学会运用扫除法。托福阅览现实信息题过错选项的一般特点:

  1.表现了原文中并没有呈现的信息或许比较、榜首流等言语现象

  2.表现的是原文中的信息,可是信息是定位句之外的,或许并不从属于要害词

  3.存在极点词汇,如must、never等等

  4.单纯重复原文信息,与发问内容无关或没有正面答复问题

  例题:As railroad lines fanned out from Chicago, farmers began to acquire open prairie land in Illinois and then Iowa, putting the fertile, deep black soil into production. Commercial agriculture transformed this remarkable treeless environment. To settlers accustomed to eastern woodlands, the thousands of square miles of tall grass were an awesome sight. Indian grass, Canada wild rye, and native big blue stem all grew higher than a person. Because eastern plows could not penetrate the densely tangled roots of prairie grass, the earliest settlers erected farms along the boundary separating the forest from the prairie. In 1837, however,John Deere patented a sharp-cutting steel plow that sliced through the sod without soil sticking to the blade. Cyrus McCormick refined a mechanical reaper that harvested fourteen times more wheat with the same amount of labor. By the1850s McCormick was selling 1,000 reapers a year and could not keep up with demand, while Deere turned out 10,000 plows annually. (TPO 33 Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth-Century United States)

  According to paragraph 5, the first settlers generally did not farm open prairie land because _____

  A.they could not plow it effectively with the tools that were available.

  B.prairie land was usually very expensive to buy.

  C.the soil along boundaries between the forest and the prairie was more fertile than the soil of the open prairie.

  D.the railroad lines had not yet reached the open prairie when the first settlers arrived.

  依据题干中“the first settlers”和“the first settlers”大致定位到榜首句和第三句这样的语义群,再依据题干中的“ because”定位到第四句。(eastern plows could not penetrate the densely tangled roots of prairie grass)。

  看选项:A选项提到了耕耘东西的原因;B选项呈现了原文中没有的信息,扫除;C选项中呈现了原文中不存在的比照联系,依据榜首句可以看出the soil of the open prairie是肥美的,可是没有比照;D选项并非定位到的内容,扫除。所以正确选项是A选项。

  托福阅览现实信息题的调查点是学生可以快速定位原文信息,解题时不需求学生加入个人布景知识,依照上述解题过程进行解题,答对率会更有确保,而假如读完全段,再依据已有的了解和知识解题,往往简单堕入过错选项中。

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