阅读提分策略:弄懂长难句


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  托福阅览文章难了解的一大原因是读不明白语句,托福阅览语句显着的特色,就是长、结构杂乱、生词多。由于词汇是托福阅览备考首要任务,这儿不谈,那么怎么弄懂托福阅览长难句呢?

  读语句时,最快的了解办法是读出骨干内容,所以要辨明哪些是骨干。骨干其实就是组成语句的主要成分所出现的意义。这需求学生将语法学透,首先了解英语语句的五大类型。

  1. 主+谓(例:I swim.)

  2. 主+谓+宾(例:I ate an apple.)

  3. 主+谓+宾+宾补(例:She found the computer useful.)

  4. 主+谓+双宾(例:He gave me a book.)

  5. 主+系+表(He is a doctor.)

  在读语句时,将语句主要成分剥离出来,抛开其他润饰,就能快速掌握语句意义。可是做到这一点并不简单,学生还要识别出哪些是语句中的润饰成分?

  托福阅览长难句中常见的杂乱润饰性成分有:

  1. 从句(定语从句、状语从句、同位语从句等)

  例:This is particularly true for trees in the middle and upper latitudes, which tend to attain greater heights on ridges, whereas in the tropics the trees reach their greater heights in the valley.

  这是一个由which引导的定语从句,先行词是前面的trees。

  2. 介词短语

  例:David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s, found a disturbing change (in the animal life)(around the fort)(during the period)(between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832.)

  在这句话中,括号里的都是介词短语,做润饰成分。in the animal life做定语润饰前面的名词change;around the fort做地址状语润饰谓语动词found,阐明发现的地址;during the period和between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832做时刻状语润饰谓语动词found,阐明发现的地址。

  3. 分词(现在分词、过去分词)

  This“atmospheric engine”, invented by Thomas Savery and vastly improved by his partner, Thomas Newcomen, embodied revolutionary principles, but it was so slow and wasteful of fuel that it could not be employed(outside the coal mines)(for which it had been designed.)

  这句话中的过去分词invented by Thomas Savery and vastly improved by his partner做后置定语润饰前面的名词engine。

  4. 不定式

  The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force.

  不定式做意图状语,标明给予他们办法的意图是什么。

  辨明了语句中的成分,学生在读语句时就要依照先划出骨干,然后剖析润饰成分,断定结构,翻译语句的流程来剖析语句,通过这样的练习之后,学生就可以在阅览时快速掌握骨干,高效了解语句了。接下来为我们举几个托福阅览长难句剖析的比如。

  长难句剖析举例1、They are an example of a common theme in evolution,the more or less parallel development of different types of body structure and function for the same reason--in this case,for flight.

  先对语句进行阅览,大略断定结构,the more or less parallel development of different types of body structure and function for the same reason这部分内容是没有谓语成分的,是and衔接的一个并列结构,可以简单幻想成一个名词,逗号之后出现一个名词,断定这部分内容是同位语成分。而破折号后边的内容是弥补,必定不是骨干。

  这样剖析之后,就可以断定语句骨干:They are an example (of a common theme in evolution)

  the more or less parallel development of different types of body structure and function for the same reason是an example 的同位语

  in this case,for flight是同位语成分的弥补阐明。

  语句翻译:它们例子了进化中的一个常见主题,即不同类型的身体结构和功用为了同一意图而或多或少地平行开展——在这种情况下,是为了飞翔的意图。

  长难句剖析举例2、Indeed,had it not been for the superb preservation of these fossils,they might well have been classified as dinosaurs.

  对于英语语法常识没学透彻的学生来说,这句话了解起来是困难的,由于结构中有虚拟语气、省掉和倒装。在剖析这种难度较大的语句之前,主张学生温习“虚拟语气”这个概念。

  语句剖析:虚拟语气,条件从句had it not been for the superb preservation of these fossils省掉了if,助动词had提早;正常语序为if it had not been for the superb preservation of these fossils)

  语句翻译:的确,假如不是这些化石被极好地保存下来,它们或许会被归到恐龙里去。

  以上就是辛达代报带来的关于托福阅览长难句了解的一些介绍。想要获得托福阅览高分,学生就一定要学会怎样高效的读语句。托福阅览长难句剖析练习是必不可少的,而学好根底的语法常识可以协助学生更快地搞定长难句。最后,辛达代报预祝广大考生早日实现梦想,飞跃重洋!