解读托福ibt独立写作的评分原则


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作为新托福写作考试的第2部分,独立写作要求考生在30分钟内完结一篇字数在300字左右的议论文。而依据对ETS最新的评分标准的解读,我们发现阅卷者评判考生的文章遵从的准则是:“Readers should focus on what the examinee does well.”。这就意味着整个评分进程是调查考生表现出长处的进程,而并非对考生的文章吹毛求疵的进程。因而,即使是一篇满分的文章,也是答应考生有少数的过错。在本章中,专家迁就独立写作部分的评分准则进行深化的剖析。

一、字数

关于独立写作的字数要求,官方的说法是:“An effective response is typically about 300 words long. If you write fewer than 300 words,you may still receive a top score,but experience has shown that shorter responses typically do not demonstrate the development of ideas needed to earn a score of 5.”。可见,若想得到高分,考生最好能将文章写到300字以上,尽管有些文章字数缺乏但仍可得到满分,可是毕竟这种状况比较稀有,要充沛关于考题打开论说,然后有利地支撑文章观念,足够的字数是有必要的。

二、文章的开展

文章的开展指的是运用比方,细节和理由来支撑你在文章中所论说的观念。朗阁海外考试研究中心剖析发现,阅卷者不期望看到考生为了凑字数而过多运用一些“模式化”的单词或语句来开展文章,也不愿意看到考生过多抄袭或许沿袭题目中的语句。他们会调查考生在用自己的话论说观念上的才能。比方:

Some people say that advertising encourage us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Yesit is. I buyed muchbecause TV ads.

明显,这个考生除了增加几个单词外,仅仅彻底抄袭了写作题目,而且没有关于文章论题的开展。而且出现了初级拼写过错和连词运用过错,因而归于0分的文章。我们再来看看这个比方:

The importance of the issue raised by the posed statementnamely creating a new holiday for peoplecan not be underestimated as it concerns the very fabric of society. As it standsthe issue of creating a new holiday raises profound implications for the future. Howeveralthough the subject matter in general can not be dismissed lightheartedlythe perspective of the issue as presented by the statement raises certain qualms regarding practical application.

这个考生尽管写了很多字,可是没有开展出任何真实的主题,这个在独立写作中都是很忌讳的工作。

三、文章的安排

如果考生的文章是安排有序的,那么阅卷者从头看到尾也不会感到糊涂。可是朗阁海外考试研究中心在此提示考生,文章结构的有序,并不是单纯地运用了比方first,second之类的连词就能够达到。文章中所有的语句有必要服务于你的论说主题,一旦脱离了主题,那么再精辟的连词也是徒劳的。此外,在独立写作的评分标准里提到了“unity”,“progression”,“coherence”,这就意味着考生需求将自己的观念经过合理的句型表达出来,做到一致,层层递进,连接,以期让阅卷者能够“一望而知”文章的目的。以下我们来看一个比方:

In any relationship of mineI would wish that first of allthe person I am dealing with is honest. Even though he/she thinks that he/she did something wrong that I wouldn’t likehe/she’d better tell me the truth and not lie about it. Later on if I find out about a lie or hear the truth from someone elsethat’d be much more unpleasant. In that case how can I ever believe or trust that person again? How can I ever believe that this person has enough confidence in me to forgive him/her and carry on with the relationship from there. So if I cannot trust a person anymoreif the person doesn’t think I can handle the truththere is no point to continuing that relationship.

在这个阶段里,作者的言语流畅,精确,丰厚,前后联接严密,语意连接,句式较多变,而且运用了反诘这种修辞手法,因而很好的完结了“安排”语句的目的。尽管不能说完美无瑕,可是这样的论说依旧能够得到满分。与之构成鲜明对比的是:

The people lining up in the embassy are applying for a variety of visas. Some applicants want student visas. Other applicants want resident visas. The other applicants want tourist visas. Applying for resident visas is very difficult; one has to meet a lot of requirements. According to a recent surveythe largest number of applicants are applying for tourist visas. The number of people applying for student visas comes in second. Among all the applicantsonly a fraction want resident visas.

这段话的主题句明显是榜首句,依据评分要求里关于阶段一致性的要求,主题句后边的支撑句都有必要围绕“不同的人在大使馆里请求不同的签证”这个论题打开论说。仔细剖析后我们发现上面这段话里多了一个不相干的语句:“Applying for resident visas is very difficult; one has to meet a lot of requirement.”,这句话尽管也在谈签证,可是它议论的是“请求签证很困难”这个观点,这样的话和阶段主题就不相同了。因而考生在写文章时,一定要做到一个阶段只讲一个论题,主题句的观点有必要贯穿这个阶段,后边的每一个支撑句都朝一个方向行进,只要这样才能写出条理分明的文章。

四、言语的运用

新托福的独立写作部分要求考生的言语运用恰当,不过即便考生的词汇运用时有一些小过错,他的文章也能够得到高分。可是如果一起还有一些语法过错的话,那么就很难让阅卷者精确理解语句的目的,这个时候文章的得分就会比较低。别的,朗阁海外考试研究中心剖析发现,若考生仅仅运用一些简略句和简略的词汇,那么他是无法来论说较为杂乱的问题的,而当文章的语句和单词过于简略时,得分往往不会超越3分。

Last monthI had a dispute with my parent. It started as a simple conversation that turned into an argument. I wanted to take a year off from school. Of coursemy parents argued that I should stay in school. I tried to reason with them and I tried to persuadethem that taking a year off from school and working would be valuable experience. My explanation fell on deaf earsand they refused to let me continue the discussion. They felt I had not thoroughly examined the issue and saw no reason to debate the subject any longer.

这段文字里划线的几处作者想要表达“评论”或许它的近义词,经过奇妙地变换了词汇,使整个阶段不让人感到乏味。这种言语表达的方式在独立写作里是十分有用的。我们再来看看以下这个比方:

He is rich.

这个语句的问题在于rich这个形容词太迷糊,他到底多有钱?从这个语句里我们无法看出。因而在独立写作中考生要尽量防止运用迷糊的形容词,能够详细的尽量要详细些。比方上面的那个语句我们能够写成:

He owns a large company and has an annual income of 20 million dollars.

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