Writing Sample 1 (OG -- 284)
The lecture completely refutes the passage. It is said in the lecture that, the perceived acts of altruism are nothing more than sneaky methods of gaining advantage for one's self. (听力观点，听力阅读之间的关系)
Contrary to the belief in the passage that sentinels risk their lives for the cause of the whole group, the professor says that the meerkat sentinels are in fact less prone to threats. The alarm sentinels give off causes to group to move rashly which draw the predator's attention towards them, thus drawing away the attention from the sentinels. -------------(阅读内容+听力驳斥)
The lecture refutes the fact that these meerkats are altruistic in the sense that they gain nothing in exchange of their services. In fact, researches have shown that they have a full stomach as they perform this altruism duty and have a better chance of escaping from danger because they witness it first. ----------------------------------------------------------------(阅读内容+听力驳斥)
Professor also offers a different underlying motivation that causes people to believe that acts such as donating an organ or sharing food with someone in need are altruistic. She says that people gain appreciation as a results of such acts, which may be deemed by some much more important than materialistic gains. -------------------------------------------(阅读内容+听力驳斥)
Getting the Templates
The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the behavior of stags. The professor shows how the actions of animal can be interpreted in different ways. For example, some people interpret the stag's actions as being for the "good of the species," but the professor shows that the stag is actually acting in self-interest. This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that the crickets' behavior can be interpreted as helping only individual crickets and not the group as a whole. The professor then talks about the results of the experiment, which seems to indicate the crickets are acting only in self-interest.
Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the intelligence of animals and insects. As he states, it would seem to require a lot of intelligence to evaluate how a behavior will affect an entire species. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely; a cricket is probably unable to think of the consequences of its actions. It is more likely that the cricket is only acting out of self-preservation, as the professor indicates.
The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about ____________.The professor shows that________________________.For example, ______________________, but the professor shows that________________________.This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that_________________________________. The professor then talks about_______________, which seems to indicate that__________________.
Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about ______________.As he states, it would seem to___________________________. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely;_____________________________.It is more likely that________________________, as the professor indicates.