盘点在托福听力和托福阅读中重复考察的题目


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托福阅览和听力都以生命科学、自然科学、社会科学和艺术四大学科为调查布景,而其间有很多文章的布景常识都简直堆叠,下面辛达托福就来盘点一下曾经在托福阅览和托福听力中重复呈现的小可爱们~


1.Ambulocetus 和 Basilosaurus     听力官方Official10-L1=阅览官方Official2-2

这两篇文章都评论了鲸鱼的进化,其间两只鲸鱼进化进程傍边的“萌物”都有现身。

Ambulocetus是一种陈旧的鲸鱼,它既能在陆地行走也能在海洋里游泳,因而又名“游走鲸”。它的化石发现证明了鲸鱼是从陆生哺乳动物进化而来的。

Well, then also in Pakistan they found a fossil of another creature, which we call Ambulocetus. The name Ambulocetus comes from Latin of course, and means “walking whale that swims”. It clearly had four limbs that could have been used for walking. It also had a long thin tail, typical of mammals, something we don’t see in today’s whales. But, it also had a long skeletal structure. And that long skeletal structure suggests that it was aquatic.

Basilosaurus 背脊鲸,最初被认为是爬行动物,后来研讨表明它是从陆生动物进化而来的海洋哺乳动物,是鲸鱼的前身。

Basilosaurus was a creature that we’ve already known about for over a hundred years. And it has been linked to modern whales because of its long whale-like body. But this new fossil find showed a full set of leg bones, something we didn’t have before. The legs were too small to be useful. But it clearly shows Basilosaurus’s evolution from land creatures. 

2. Jean Piaget   听力官方Official10-L4=阅览官方Official21-3

这两篇文章都剖析了“childhood amnesia”(儿童健忘症,小孩子记不得三岁之前发生的事情)发生的原因,其间一位叫Jean Piaget的心理学大神多次登场,童鞋们一定要膜拜一下。

Jean Piaget(让·皮亚杰),瑞士儿童心理学家,他的认知发展理论(cognitive development)是任何一个研讨儿童认知心理学者不可不知的学科典范。

他将儿童认识分为四个发展阶段:

1) Sensor motor Stage(感知运算阶段,0-2岁)靠感觉获取经验,在1岁左右,发展出物体恒存(object permanence)的概念,以感觉动作发挥图式的功用。

2) Preoperational Stage(前运算阶段,2-7岁)现已能使用语言及符号等表征外在事物,会使用不具保留概念,不具可逆性,以自我(egocentrism)为中心。

3) Concrete Operations Stage(具体运算阶段,7-11岁)了解水平线概念,能使用具体物质操作来协助思考。

4) Formal Operational Stage(方式运算阶段,从11岁开端)开端会类推,逻辑思维达到较高水平,开端具有抽象思维。

Piaget suggested that because they don’t have language, children younger than 18 to 24 months live in the here and now, that is they lack the mean to symbolically represent objects and events that are not physically present. Once language starts to develop from about age 2, they do have a system for symbolic representation and can talk about things which aren’t in their immediate environment including the past. Of course he didn’t claim that infants don’t have any sort of memory, it’s acknowledged that they can recognize some stimuli, like faces. (源自官方真题Official)

3.Spartina   听力官方Official19-L3=阅览官方Official22-1

这两篇文章都评论了Spartina这种奇葩植物的特性,以及特性发生的原因和用途。

Spartina,米草属,生长在滨海的盐碱地,生命力极强,当然是因为它本身奇葩的特性,来看来自官方Official的一段简介:

In fact, the Spartina genus is the dominant plant found in salt marshes. You can find one type of the Spartina, Saltmarsh Cordgrass, growing in low marsh areas. In higher marsh areas, you are likely to find a Spartina commonly called Salt-meadow Hay. So how is the Spartina able to survive in an environment that would kill most plants? well, it is because salt marsh grasses have found ways to adapt to the conditions there.


辛达托福今日的分享就到这里,大家在做题时分也可以自行归纳哦,找出那些共同呈现的小可爱,搞定它,一箭双雕~