语法之时间从句中一般过去时与过去完成时


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  A 由when衔接的从句

  一个过去的动作紧接另一动作时:

  He called her a liar.

  他骂她说谎。

  She smacked his face.

  她打了他一个耳光。

  能够用when把这两个一般过去时的语句衔接起来。衔接的条件是,从意思上能够明显看出后一动作跟从前一动作,二者并不是同时发生的:

  When he called her a liar she smacked his face.

  他骂她说谎时,她打了他一个耳光。

  两个过去时这样用时,一般存在这样的概念:第一个动作导致第二个动作,而后者是紧接前者发生的:

  When he opened the window the bird flew out.

  他一翻开窗户鸟就飞出去了。

  When the play ended the audience went home.

  剧完毕后,观众就回家了。

  When he died he was given a state funeral.

  他逝世后,为他举行了国葬。

  过去完成时用于when之后,是为了避免运用两个一般过去时或许给人形成两个动作同时发生的形象:

  When he had shut the window we opened the door of the cage.

  他关了窗户之后,咱们把笼门翻开了。(咱们等他关紧了窗户才翻开笼门。)

  When she had sung her song she sat down.

  她唱完歌之后坐了下来。(如写成 When she sang her song she satdown,或许形成她是坐着唱歌的形象。)

  When he had seen all the pictures he said he was ready to leave.

  他看了一切的画之后说他要走了。(在他看完画之后……)试和下句相比较:

  When he saw all the pictures he expressed amazement that one manshould have painted so many.

  他看见一切的画时,表明非常惊奇,一个人居然画了这么多画。(他一看见画就这么说。)

  过去完成时相同能够与as soon as,the moment,immediately连用。(关于as作为表明时刻的连词的用法,拜见第332节。)

  B 过去完成时能够与till/until和before连用,强调一个动作完毕或预期将完毕,但要注意在till/until+过去完成时+一般过去时结构中,表明一般过去时的动作能够坐落表明过去完成时的动作之前,而在before+过去完成时+一般过去时结构中表明一般过去时的动作总是坐落表明过去完成时的动作之前:

  He refused to go till he had seen all the pictures.

  他在看完一切的画之后才同意走。

  He did not wait till we had finished our meal.

  他没等到咱们吃完饭就走了。

  Before we had finished our meal he ordered us back to work.

  没等咱们吃完饭,他就命令咱们回去干活。

  Before we had walked ten miles he complained of sore feet.

  咱们还没走出十英里路,他就抱怨脚痛了。

  也能够在表明时刻的从句中和主句中都用过去完成时:

  It was a very expensive town.Before we had been here a week we hadspent all our money.

  那是一个物价很贵的当地。咱们到这儿还不到一星期,就花光了一切的钱。

  C 在after之后一般用过去完成时态:

  After the will had been read there were angry exclamations.

  遗嘱宣读完之后,激起了一片愤恨的?时刻回忆更为过去的动作时,要用过去完成时。如果有两个这样的动作:He had beento school but he had learnt nothing there,so was now illiterate(他上过学但什么也没学到,因此现在仍是个文盲),而又想用时刻连词把它们衔接起来,就能够用when等连词衔接两个过去完成时:

  When he had been at school he had learnt nothing,so he was now illiter-ate.

  他上学的时候什么也没学到,所以现在仍是个文盲。

  但更常见的状况是,这儿时刻从句中的动词用一般过去时:

  When he was at school he had learnt nothing,

  (译文同上。)

  相似的例句还有:

  He had stayed in his father’s firm till his father died.Then he had startedhis own business and was now a very successful man.

  他在父亲的公司里一向呆到父亲逝世。之后他便自己开业,当时已成为一个事业有成的商人。

  D 表明知道、了解等的动词一般在时刻从句中不用过去完成时,除非有时刻修饰:

  When she had known me for a year she invited me to tea.

  她知道了我一年之后,约请我吃茶点。

  When I knew the work of one department thoroughly I was moved to thenext department.

  在我完全熟悉了一个部分的作业之后,又被调到另一部分。相当于:

  As soon as I knew…

  试与下句比较:

  When I had learnt the work of one department I was moved.

  我学会一个部分的作业之后,就被调走了。

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