语法之过去完成进行时


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  A 形式

  曩昔完结进行时是由 had been+现在分词构成,因此无人称变化:

  I had/I’d been working

  they had not/hadn’t been working

  had you been working?

  had you not/hadn’t you been working?

  凡不能用于进行时的动词均不能有这种时态,但动词want(有时还有wish)除外:

  The boy was delighted with his new knife.He had been wanting one fora long time.

  男孩对新小刀很高兴。他早就想要一把了。

  留意:这一时态没有被动语态,像They had been picking ap-ples(他们一向在摘苹果)这样的语句,最近似的被动式是Ap-ples had been picked(苹果已摘完),实际上这两种说法意思并不相同。(拜见下面B3。)

  B 用法

  曩昔完结进行时与曩昔完结时之间的联系,同现在完结进行时与现在完结时之间的联系相同。(拜见第192节。)

  1 表明动作在所说的曩昔某一时刻之前就已开端并继续到那一时刻或许在那一时刻之前刚刚中止时,常常能够用两个时态中的任一个(拜见第192节A):

  It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn.

  现已6点了,他感到很累,因为他从天亮起一向作业到现在。相当于:

  It was now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn.

  那时正是6点,他因从一大早就干活而累了。

  2 用曩昔完结时表明的重复的动作,有时能够作为一种接连的动作用曩昔完结进行时表明(拜见第192节B):

  he had tried five times to get her on the phone.

  他曾试着打了五次电话要找她。

  He had been trying to get her on the phone.

  他一向在试着打电话找她。

  3 一个用曩昔完结时表达的单一动作和一个用曩昔完结进行时表达的动作不同(拜见第192节C):

  By six o’clock he had repaired the engine.

  到6点钟时他现已修好发动机了。(这项作业现已完结。)

  但He had been repairing the engine(他一向在修补发动机)仅通知咱们他在前面的时刻/前半小时里做什么,而并不通知咱们这项作业是否完结。

  另一个区别是,由曩昔完结进行时表明的动作常继续进行直到或甚至超过说话的时刻(这个时刻是在曩昔)。而由曩昔完结时表明的动作虽能够发生在这一说话时刻之前不久,但动作与说话之间能够有较长的时刻距离:

  He had been painting the door.

  他其时一向在油漆门。(油漆大概还未干。)

  He had painted the door.

  以上是辛达代报带来的托福语法,希望内容对考生有所帮助,辛达代报最后预祝考生考试顺利!